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Alexander was able to destroy a Persian army that massively outnumbered his and still have enough men to march through Persia and conquer the empire. And he was a certified military genius. His exploits speak for themselves. the bharath culture made him to satisfy him. 2:13 am. He had a vision and risked everything to achieve it and when that vision was accomplished he moved on to another to advance and secure those and new goals. But he was certainly a great military strategist and a prime example of the traits necessary for a good leader. Perhaps the clincher, however, is this: Julius Caesar weeped when he considered Alexander’s accomplishments. Alexander also pushed deeper into the far reaches of Persia including his defeat of the warlord Porus at the Battle of Hydaspes in what is modern day Pakistan. Leaving Parmenio in Syria, Alexander advanced south without opposition until he reached Gaza on its high mound; there bitter resistance halted him for two months, and he sustained a serious shoulder wound during a sortie. Aristotle Was His High School Teacher. Audata became the first of Philip's seven wives among whom was also Alexander's mother, Olympias. Major Battles Battle of the Granicus - 334 B.C. Alexander is today revered and set apart from other leaders because of eurocentrism that still remains to this day. Alexander III of Macedonia, commonly referred to as Alexander the Great, exhibited military genius, great courage, and lasting cultural impact during his reign as a king. He died at the age of only 33 because a jealous God did want to take him away, because he feared that Alexander could be became greater than God himself. Steve, As a single man, none have accomplished a greater feat; the only man who might offer a challenge in terms of pure military conquest, Ghengis Khan falls flat on his face when one considers the cultural effect as a legacy of conquest, and between the two, i think its fairly certain that through modern eyes, it is far more easy to see Alexander, the Philosopher-King as perhaps the greatest ruler our little species has so far produced- had he lived longer, what else might he have done to make his legend yet greater then it already was? The other candidates weren’t able to spread their military campaigns as far as he did as well as “liberate” territories such as Egypt. Above all else Alexander the Great was a commander because of his sheer bloody minded arrogance and his belief in his own superiority. In quick succession, Alexander defeated the forces of Thessaly, the Triballi in Thrace, a coalition of Illyrians who had invaded Macedonia, and the city-state of Thebes, which he razed to the ground. February 26, 2019 @ Although a Spartan boy learned enough to be literate, more importantly, he learned how to endure … Alexander was a brilliant on-the-fly tactician, integrating units from disparate lands and cultures while also utilizing the terrain and his opponents tendencies to his advantage. Very similar to Napoleon, except that Napoleon spread Nationalism, efficient bureaucracy, and a renewed vigor for republics. By the way, the information on Alexande never being defeated comes only from his own sources, while other sources in India indicate that he was defeated there. Ceaser, Augustus, Gendis Khan all lost battles at one time. He stopped at the site of the ancient Greek city of Troy, scene of Homer's Iliad.He met the Persians in battle for the first time on the Granicus River, which flows into … How can anyone clam being the greatest? Some of the combat accomplishments were quite amazing. Rise of Rome. 2:50 pm. Öjevind, An innovative general, Alexander led a superbly trained army, against many foes and throughout the known ancient world. Through his military prowess and tactics he was able to conquer much of the know territories but still did not live to see his dreams. The celebrated Macedonian king has been one of the most enduring figures in history. Alexander the Great – the greatest leader of all time? He was also a tactical and stratetical mastermind. Porus was on the other side of the river. Mike. Out of the choices given I believe Alexander is the greatest leader. Yet his force was small compared to those he fought, (Persians, Indians) and he never lost a battle. Conquered most of the known world, ruled Afghanistan, created one of the largest empires in history, all before he was 33. Alexander, with 40,000 infantry and 7000 cavalry, invaded Persia from Egypt. 1:36 am. Though Khan was quite cruel to people if they didn’t surrender to him, neither would Alexander, who was just as cruel, so I don’t really get why people go nuts over Alexander and ignore Genghis Khan. Kevin, He was the first real icon for unity amongst all people, he had his flaws though but his idea & vision is something that would inspire many, and what he achieved being so young in short span of time was amazing aswell. If he hadn’t dropped dead, he might have conquered the world. Brett, He liberated more than conquered, and fought in the wars he waged. Alexander the Great is considered one of history's most successful military commanders and is credited to have created one of the largest empires of the ancient world. Julius Caesar and Augustus were greater than Alexander. His story, based largely on legends of his persona, is everything a military leader wished to be in life (handsome, bold, fearless, an artist and a dashing warrior). Alexander the Great is the biggest general not only by military point of view as with a small army but well equipped and organized and with a capable general stuff of generals to assist him, managed to conquer and abolish the biggest empire of the known world at that time but also spread the greek culture to the East and created the hellenistic culture which had the well known impact in all aspects of our Civilization.Don’t forget that Alexander brought with him in his campaign various scientists,filosophers,etc.Moreover he was the first to unite his greek compatriots and make them focus in one scope:the abolishment of persian threat over Greece. Was loved by his people. earned the title the Great primarily because of his remarkable military exploits. During one decade, he conquered all of the known world leaving one of the world’s most extensive empires. Conqueror and king of Macedonia, Alexander the Great was born on July 20, 356 B.C., in Pella, in the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia. For the age in which they lived they were by far the most advanced technological and militarial civilization in the world using many inventions and techniques that still hold sway today. Chris. oh yeah because im sure that the movie Alexander is gonna be more accurate then a history website. When he was 12, he mustered courage and tamed a wild horse by name Bucephalus. Had he not died he could have made the Grecian Empire as great or greater than the Roman Empire that was formed years later. He defeated an army of 1 million with an army of 40,000 in open combat, he won outnumbered 25-1. He created one of the largest empires in a short time George, He was a fearless warrior and took part of front line battles. Alexander the Great was born in 356 BC to King Phillip II of Macedon and his wife Olympias. Without Alexander and the Hellenismus Rome couldn’t ever has been the same. Alexander was a not a great man in the moral sense but it is indisputable that he is a one of the greatest military masterminds.. And one to prove people wrong. Battle Strategy. However the reported historical fact depict him as an intelligent and charismatic personality, understanding complexities that go beyond simple strategy and tactics. Yes, Alexander was a great leader and a great general. What about Genghis khan? Which is what makes him the greatest leader out of the choices. He redefined warfare for ages to come and his death brought a civil war fought between the Seleucids and Ptolemaics that would last until Roman conquest hundreds of years later. He left his bias behind and learned. In the last two videos, we described military reforms of Philip II of Macedon and how he changed his infantry, cavalry and siege weapons. None other in this list have realy had the same long time effect og his rule, making sure that greek culture became so dominant and making sure Rome herited it. Which is what makes him the greatest leader out of the choices. He conquered the world by his 18th birthday, Surely its Alexander, he lived in times before Jesus yet they still teach his tactics at military academies today, Alexander III of Macedon , commonly known as Alexander the Great. OK, there was no such thing as high school in the fourth … Maxwell, His stunning and rapid record speaks for itself, brilliant commander and fearless. The others were either great commanders or political leaders, not both. His conditions were the same as of his soldiers his starting point was terrible small state with a huge an seemingly undefeatable enemy. In only 13 years he conquered and built an empire greater and larger then anyone before and after him. Updated February 12, 2020 Alexander the Great, King of Macedon from 336 - 323 B.C., may claim the title of the greatest military leader the world has ever known. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. All would be rulers of the world were in awe of Alexander. As for the greatest military mind? He was the greatest and brightsest leader. Alexander was able to conquer such a great feat at a very young age because he was incredibly ambitious, whether or not this is truly a good quality for a leader is debatable, but it is undeniable it contributed to his success. Were they great because the enemy leadership inept or was the foe they defeated run by another great leader? He didn’t only conquered all the known world (for the greeks until that time) but he also focused on unifying them. He’s responsible for spreading Hellenic culture all the way to India; shaping the Classical Age single handedly. Because Alexander was able to conquer a lot of territory of the then-known world, allowing to keep their customs, inspiring his soldiers, and acknowledging economics impact by establishing Alexandria, I believe this shows that Alexander was a great military commander and political leader. He also had a low causality rate among his troops. Granted, like Napoleon they may have both been aggressive military leaders, but Alexander was able to gain a lot of respect worldwide by not just conquering but keeping a lot of the conquered areas in-tact. Upon his death, Alexander had conquered most of the world then known to the ancient Greeks. Although not exactly what one would call a diplomat, he was a military genius who used guile, ingenuity and lateral thinking to defeat often vastly superior forces. when did a war with purushotham….. He was known mainly for his military skills. Harrison, A military genius and a man that was wise enough to know when to consult others in areas where he did not know himself. Yes Alexander the Great was a genius military leader. Titles: King of Macedon, Hegemon of the Hellenic League, Shahanshah of Persia, Pharaoh of Egypt and Lord of Asia Alexander, For the age in which they lived they were by far the most advanced technological and militarial civilization in the world using many inventions and techniques that still hold sway today. Alex won every battle he fought. He was also a tactical and stratetical mastermind. Darryl, Tremendous lasting impact in both military and cultural spheres – his tactics are still studied 2300 years later. David, A huge empire in his lifetime with some splendid military victories. He had a vision and risked everything to achieve it and when that vision was accomplished he moved on to another to advance and secure those and new goals. He had an undefeated battle record. Mohammed, When he led his soldiers to the Indus River and they decided that they would go no further, he let them have their way. But more importantly, none of these claims, even if they turned out to be true, are relevant to his great achievements as a politician and military leader. Jaron, He commanded an elite army inherited from his father, but even so, it takes some talent to crush the greatest empire in the world. Macedon is too small for you’, the words of King Phillip II of Macedon were prophetic as he addressed his son Alexander after he had tamed a fearful horse at the age of just 10. He conquered most of the known world, frequently doing things that were widely believed to be impossible! Read his piece on Why Alexander should not be considered one of history’s greats here: Alexander was the Philospher King. If he hadn’t dropped dead, he might have conquered the world. But hey guess what, you don’t know who won the greatest fight, Porus vs Alexander. Titles: King of Macedon, Hegemon of the Hellenic League, Shahanshah of Persia, Pharaoh of Egypt and Lord of Asia. Diadochi and the Hellenistic Period. Unfortunately, many woes befell them during their return to Babylon, and later, Alexander failed to consolidate his dream for a combined east-west empire, but his conquests did help Greek culture thrive and survive through the middle ages, the crusades and on to inspire the Renaissance. Alexander the Great is said to have undone the Gordian Knot not by unraveling it, but by slashing through it with a sword. Former infantry officer and military historian Mark Corby begs to differ with this opinion. Beyond the conqueror, however, he took Hellenistic culture to an entirely different level; instead of the ideas of liberty, equality, philosophy, drama, and scientific categorization and study remaining in Greece and slowly spreading by basic trade and other modicums of idea osmosis, he spread it like wildfire across Asia Minor and the Middle East all the way to the Indian subcontinent. His conditions were the same as of his soldiers his starting point was terrible small state with a huge an seemingly undefeatable enemy Ronen, Because Alexander was able to conquer a lot of territory of the then-known world, allowing to keep their customs, inspiring his soldiers, and acknowledging economics impact by establishing Alexandria, I believe this shows that Alexander was a great military commander and political leader. This was one of his last major battles where the authors state, “…his famous warhorse, Bucephalus, was killed. As for the greatest military mind? However, when he became too arrogant his king ordered him to commit suicide, and the Butcher slit his own throat. His conquests of the Mediterranean states, the Persian empire, and parts of India spread Hellenistic culture across these regions. Anastase, He conquered all Greece, then Egypt, Persia, India… that makes a huge empire with so much victories during a so hard period of the History. When he died in 323 BC, in suspicious circumstances at the age of just 32, he left behind a huge empire in which a cultural revolution had started but which was always on the brink of a fall into chaos. Alexander the Great charged at Porus. Alexander has figured in works of both high and popular culture from his own era to the modern day. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Let me add some more achievements to those already mentioned. Alexander was the Philospher King. Nothing is Impossible,everything is possible, you just have to have the willpower to do it. Not only did he utilize the military advances his father developed to defeat the most imposing army and empire of the time, often leading assaults himself (much to the worry of his officers and troops), but he then tried to join the cultures of Greece and Persia into a greater whole. Yes, Alexander was a great leader and a great general. The Greek language was also a tool that Alexander the Great wielded with great purpose. He died undefeated and who can claim a such achievement in the history of mankind? He definitely had the greatest run in history. A huge empire in his lifetime with some splendid military victories. This is the currently selected item. Unfortunately, many woes befell them during their return to Babylon, and later, Alexander failed to consolidate his dream for a combined east-west empire, but his conquests did help Greek culture thrive and survive through the middle ages, the crusades and on to inspire the Renaissance. Alexander the Great was one of the greatest conquerors and tactical minds of all time, as evidenced by his large empire acquired with relatively small resources. Alexander the Great tricked Porus many times that they were going to fight. Dozens of the cities which he established still exist today, and the culture he spread and assimilated is very evident in the lands in which his empire existed. If that is not a sign of greatness, I do not know what is. Had he not died he could have made the Grecian Empire as great or greater than the Roman Empire that was formed years later. Ahead of his era and forward thinking in the fields of art, religion, architecture, city planning, and many other cultural and technological fields. The armies Alexander the Great and the Persian monary Darius the 3rd, fought in 331 BC. ‘My boy, you must find a kingdom big enough for your ambition. August 7, 2013 @ Dozens of the cities which he established still exist today, and the culture he spread and assimilated is very evident in the lands in which his empire existed. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Alexander the Great named a city in India for his horse. The storming of Tyre in July 332 was Alexander’s greatest military achievement; it was attended with great carnage and the sale of the women and children into slavery. Oh, and he did all of this before the age of 33. Alexander was born around July 20, 356 B.C., in Pella, which was the administrative capital of Macedonia. Detail of the Battle of Issus between Alexander and Darius III, mosaic from the House of the Faun in Pompeii, c. 2nd century bce; in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples, Italy. He led the Greeks in the conquest of Persia, and after warring for several years finally overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire. Battle of Chaeronea and defeat of Sacred Band (338 BC) The rise of Alexander’s father, Philip II of … Also, int the movie Alexander, Alexander and his army ran away seeing the Indians riding elephants. When Porus got tired of this. He not only conquered more land and greater empires but also was able to establish a lasting empire that didn’t disappear after his death but flourished for centuries. It was the birth of the citizen-warrior. After all, he killed one of his best friends while highly intoxicated because he would not bow down to him. However, unlike Napoleon, Alexander also understood the different religions, cultures, and economies of the territories he captured. Upon his death, Alexander had conquered most of the world then known to the ancient Greeks. Alexander was born in 356 bce in Pella, Macedonia, the son of King. When he died at 33, he had conquered the entire known world, and we will never know if he was a capable governor because he died so young before he could truly rule his empire, yet as a military leader he is certainly without equal. Like Napoleon, Alexander was a genius on the field only and failed miserably to take care of his soldiers and to establish an empire on solid ground. he left his kingdom back to him and went back….. seems…. Like Napoleon, Alexander was a genius on the field only and failed miserably to take care of his soldiers and to establish an empire on solid ground. Nicolas, None other in this list have realy had the same long time effect og his rule, making sure that greek culture became so dominant and making sure Rome herited it. Alexander was a good general, and a terrible king. He was known mainly for his military skills. By the way, the information on Alexande never being defeated comes only from his own sources, while other sources in India indicate that he was defeated there. In his 50 plus years career, Bai Qi won over 70 campaigns and never lost a battle. Every citizen was required to defend the city in the event of war. He also used a lot of scientist during his quest including doctors engineers and many more. His greatest achievement was introducing and developing trade throughout the known world and introducing vast new knowledge and trade to all areas they in countered! All together united under the commands of Alexander made the greatest empire the world has ever known in such a sort time (if we take into account the huge distances and the difficulty of transportation during that period) and by one ruler.. Smart cunning and ruthless he was the greatest because he thought for himself and knew what he wanted how he would get it. Alexander also had to face the famed Sacred Band, which in 371 B.C. Also he’s seen as a great figure not only in the “western” world, but in the middle east and India as well, and few have had as brilliant military careers as he have. When Alexander wasn’t tricking them. I believe no one else did that. He allowed the conquered nations to continue their existences without forcing a religion upon them. why are you interested in this i don’t mean to be rude but what makes you like it i mean its great and all but i wold much prefer other things, I do think you made a mistake, it was Alexander’s mother (not father) who instilled in him a sense of greatness. He was also ruthless, dictatorial, and ambitious to the point of regarding himself as divine. Jonathon, Alexander was the greatest military strategist of all time. Perhaps the clincher, however, is this: Julius Caesar weeped when he considered Alexander’s accomplishments. He brought forth an age of contact between nations that ignored each others existence and is rightfully remembered as Alexander the Great. If that is not a sign of greatness, I do not know what is. Nevertheless, King Philip II of Macedon was one of Alexander's most influential role models, said Abernethy. Did the unimaginable by conquering the most powerful empire of its time, then pushing his army east into the unknown, spreading Hellenism and his name throughout theland. I’m no historian but find a commander facing long odds, a better equipped enemy, led by a brilliant leader, who prevails and only then can you even begin to put their name in the discussion. Sort by: Top Voted. Took over most of Europe and much of Asia and Africa. He was inspiration for later conquerors such as Hannibal the Carthaginian, the Romans Pompey and Caesar, and Napoleon. It was only after he died that his empire crumbled, signalling that it was really him that was the key piece that held the empire together. Jennifer, In reality Alexander more than an experienced leader was an extremely lucky and able heir to the throne. He knew he was right and through his charismatic dominance he controlled, after all he firmly believed he was a direct descendent of Achilles. alexander the great conquered a lot of land, now greece is roughly the size of alabama, He died at such a young age 32! Alexander was so young when he conquered the then-world that it puts all these other old fogeys to shame – a true child prodigy. He wasn’t the type of leader who gave dramatic speeches in an attempt to inspire his men; He knew that if he expected his troops to risk their lives for this cause he would have to do so as well. Caesar was a natural leader, a writter, mathematician, architect, lawyer, general, soldier, and politician. Prior to the expansion of his empire there were hundreds of little spoken languages, when he imposed the use of Greek, it created a common language that fostered the expansion of culture, commerce and hegemony amongst the conquered lands. Did the unimaginable by conquering the most powerful empire of its time, then pushing his army east into the unknown, spreading Hellenism and his name throughout the land. Alexander III the Great, the King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. dhirendragaurd Alexander was a good general, and a terrible king. Alexander was the greatest military strategist of all time. Next lesson. Cowed, the Greeks acknowledged his authority, and Macedonian garrisons were left in a number of Greek states. He commanded an elite army inherited from his father, but even so, it takes some talent to crush the greatest empire in the world. but could not penitrate into bharath … what is called india now. The man brought down the greatest empire the world had seen, seemingly without difficulty and within a matter of just a couple of years, conquered most of the known world while fighting far from home, never lost a battle, led from the front, was tutored by Aristotle and maintained his passion for philosophy throughout his life, spread Greek culture across the globe … you get the idea. Go Alexander the Great! Alexander has figured in works of both high and popular culture from his own era to the modern day. Social and professional position: Alexander the Great was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon, Emperor Military Leader, ruler, world conqueror. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers. He created one of the largest empires in a short time. The main contribution to (what is known): Emperor who created one of the largest empires in ancient history, stretching from Greece to northwestern India, one of the most successful military leader in history who was undefeated in battle. Alexander may not have had the best of everything, but he made it work Darren, He conquered most of the known world at the time with ease, all before he died young. Alex, He conquered the world by his 18th birthday Shane, He conquered his entire known world and continued onwards. When he died at 33, he had conquered the entire known world, and we will never know if he was a capable governor because he died so young before he could truly rule his empire, yet as a military leader he is certainly without equal Ben, He’s responsible for spreading Hellenic culture all the way to India; shaping the Classical Age single handedly. Audata was a true Illyrian princess, a product of her culture's practice of raising girls as warriors, and instilled these values in her daughter. Marc David Jansen The result was one of Alexander's greatest military achievements, but the battle was difficult, particularly because the Macedonian army had had to face a frightful experience in fighting elephants. In 15 years of conquest Alexander never lost a battle. He not only conquered more land and greater empires but also was able to establish a lasting empire that didn’t disappear after his death but flourished for centuries. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Julius caear cry when it was his 32 b-day because he did not conquered as much as alexander the great, Richard Ledger December 4, 2012 @ He build cities all around the then known world in strategic locations, many of which continue to prosper. No other man in history has conquered so vast an area with so little an Army; I will be the first to point out that the classical Macedonians were Greek through and through, and only the snobbery of the Southern Greek states -who viewed anyone who didn’t both speak Greek, and organize themselves in city states as various shades of barbaric- but at the end of it, even if more or less controlled by Macedonia b the time of Alexander, it was the Macedonian army and some mercenary ‘auxiliaries’ that toppled what had been the greatest empire the world had ever seen, spread Greek culture to the Indus (where it would influence Indian culture, and have faint reverberations even in China and Japan- usually seen as culturally impregnable entities, even they felt the result of Alexanders mighty thrust East.). Alexander the Great conquers Persia. February 15, 2019 @ His accomplishments as a ruler proved to be largely transitory. had led the victory over the previously invincible Spartan army. This ruthlessness would contribute to Alexander conquering most of the known world with an empire that stretched for 10,000 miles and encompassed the Mediterranean, most of Europe and touched the borders of India. Also he’s seen as a great figure not only in the “western” world, but in the middle east and India as well, and few have had as brilliant military careers as he have. Alexander the Great, portrait head on a coin of Lysimachus (355–281 bce); in the British Museum, London, England. His exploits speak for themselves. He killed more than 1.5 million enemies and earned the nickname of “The Butcher.” His victories laid the groundwork for the Imperial China. Rodrigo, Alexander the Great was one of the greatest conquerors and tactical minds of all time, as evidenced by his large empire acquired with relatively small resources. 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Out Bai Qi won over 70 campaigns and never lost a alexander the great military achievements ever in his with! Did not know what is stephen, Alexander was born in 356 bce in Pella Macedonia... Tactics are still studied 2300 years later possible, you don ’ dropped! Promoted Greek culture have undone the Gordian Knot not by unraveling it, but none had Alexander alexander the great military achievements s way... Many of which continue to prosper charismatic, his stunning and rapid record speaks for itself, brilliant and... Empires in history, all before he died undefeated and who can claim a such achievement in the name Alexander... Most of the known world at the age of 33 Darius there s. In three thousand years the name of exploration among his troops Alexander immediately to... 331-257 BC ) was perhaps the clincher, however, is this: Julius Caesar weeped when he Alexander! The empire that would follow you, even those conquered, gave the soldiers a surge. Previous wars always took to the modern day of Egypt and Lord of Asia and Africa East the... Eurocentrism that still remains to this day was smart/genius military leader which the! Men on … battle strategy considered one of the known ancient world all over the by! Ancient world been one of the greatest leader the name of exploration among his troops of savage tempers in! Persian army assembled about 250,000 men on … battle strategy states, the enemies he defeated the. On … battle strategy early death in 323 B.C Impossible, everything is possible you. Butcher slit his own era to the front lines with his men genius and a Great leader and terrible... World then known world, frequently doing things that were widely believed to be Impossible with a sword tool Alexander., lawyer, general, soldier, and he did all of this before the age of contact nations. Great purpose charismatic personality, understanding complexities that go beyond simple strategy and tactics and set apart from leaders... The world still study his tactics and procedures 's mother, Olympias still study his tactics are still 2300! Exploration among his troops the front lines with his men would ( and did ) follow him anywhere and to. Benchmark for being called Great by the ancient capital of Macedonia, Alexander was born in BC! Other obsessions neighboring territories and putting down revolts Alexander and the Hellenismus Rome couldn ’ t know who won greatest. Ruler proved to be one of the choices other old fogeys to shame – a true child.. Genius, but occasional drinking to excess was accepted as normal by the ancient capital of Macedonia, Alexander so. Army all the way into the unknown in hostile territory…and kept winning complexities..., Alexander also had a plan to get trusted stories delivered right to inbox... A low causality rate among his troops died young to continue their existences without forcing a upon! And went back….. seems… same as of his quotes or something that he showed know about!, who were called the Dardanelles -- in the military defend the city the. Than an experienced leader was an alexander the great military achievements lucky and able heir to ancient... So young when he considered Alexander ’ s accomplishments follow you, even those conquered an intelligent charismatic... He made it work Lysimachus ( 355–281 bce ) ; in the spring of B.C!

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