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Junior officers, one at the rear and one in the centre, were in place to steady the ranks and maintain the cohesion of the formation, similar to modern-day NCOs. But more important than his good fortune was the army he inherited from his father, Philip II. [19], Each phalangite carried as his primary weapon a sarissa, which was a type of pike. was commanded by a lochagos who was in the front rank. Each file of 16 men, a lochos. The phalanx carried with it a fairly minimal baggage train, with only one servant for every ten men. Other forms of armour are mentioned in original sources, such as the kotthybos and a type of "half-armour" the hemithorakion (ἡμιθωράκιον); the precise nature of these defences is not known but it would be reasonable to conclude that they were lighter and perhaps afforded less protection than the thorax.[41]. Alexander the Great’s wild successes were as much the result of his father Phillip II’s military reforms as they were the young ruler’s daring and imagination. This gave it a marching speed that contemporary armies could not hope to match — on occasion forces surrendered to Alexander simply because they were not expecting him to show up for several more days. Detail of the so-called Alexander Sarcophagus, excavated at Sidon. Macedonian Forces between Alexander I and Philip II. 70. Continuum, London, pp. The shield was of Thracian origin and was originally shaped like a crescent, however, by the time of Macedonian greatness many depictions of peltai show them as being oval or round. The Mystery of U-853 – All U-Boats Had Orders to Surrender; Why Did This One Attack? The combined arms tactics of the Macedonians gave the invaders an advantage over both, and in due course allowed more contingents fighting in different styles to be bolted onto the basic system. These were divided into 1,500-man battalions, each raised from a separate district of Macedon. The Companion cavalry, or Hetairoi (Ἑταῖροι), were the elite arm of the Macedonian army, and have been regarded as the finest quality cavalry[6] in the ancient world. Previous kings of Macedon had raised armies including good quality cavalry, a small number of hoplite infantry and fairly numerous light infantry; however, these forces were not rigorously trained or organised and were only just capable of keeping Macedon intact — the kingdom often being raided or invaded by the surrounding barbarian peoples. When taking part in rapid forced marches or combat in broken terrain, so common in the eastern Persian Empire, it appears that they wore little more than a helmet and a cloak (exomis) so as to enhance their stamina and mobility. A modern reconstruction of the gastraphetes, The dramatic change in the abilities of Greeks to operate against fortifications owed much to the development of effective artillery. A Macedonian hypaspist. They had for the first time conducted successful sieges against strongly held and fortified positions. Plutarch noted that the phalangites (phalanx soldiers) carried a small shield on their shoulder. However, the Macedonian king also innovated, he introduced the use of a very much longer spear, the two-handed pike. Unrelenting in taking the offensive, he was always bold, even reckless. In the past, the kingdom produced some decent cavalry, but few other soldiers of much account. 182 relations. Philip V fielded 16,000 phalangites at the Battle of Cynoscephalae, and Perseus reputedly fielded over 20,000 at Pydna. First there were warriors and later there were high educated soldiers. The Hypaspists were of privileged Macedonian blood and their senior chiliarchy formed the Agema[21] foot bodyguard of Alexander III.[22]. [40] It is to be doubted that this type of armour was worn by persons other than of royal or very exalted rank. The cavalry forced their way into the Illyrian ranks followed by elements of the phalanx. Explore. Their numbers were kept at full strength, despite casualties, by continual replenishment through the transfer of veteran soldiers chosen from the phalanx.[24]. However, when engaging in heavy hand to hand fighting, for instance during a siege or pitched battle, they would have worn body armour of either linen or bronze. [30] It lacks its cheek pieces. 28mm Ancient Macedonian Army I took advantage of Wargames Foundry's 50% off offer for regiments on ebay a few days ago and bought a bunch of Macedonians. The sources also indicate that the phalangites were on occasion armed with javelins. Antigonid Peltasts. Such early Macedonian armies showed clear similarities with the military styles of nearby Barbarian states such as Thrace and Iyllria. Initially only one squadron strong, they received 500 reinforcements in Egypt and a further 600 at Susa.[15]. By introducing military service as a full-time occupation, Philip was able to drill his men regularly, ensuring unity and cohesion in his ranks. It is no exaggeration to speak of a military revolution under Philip and Alexander, and most of the reforms occurred under the father. This number steadily grew as the campaign progressed, with 300 reinforcements arriving from Macedon after the first year of campaigning. It was created and made formidable by King Philip II of Macedon; previously the army of Macedon had been of little account in the politics of the Greek world, and Macedonia had … Greaves could be worn by both heavy infantry and heavy cavalry, but they are not in great evidence in contemporary depictions. [15], In 329 BC, Alexander, while in Sogdiana, created a 1,000 strong unit of horse archers that was recruited from various Iranian peoples. Alexander the Great was an ancient Macedonian ruler and one of history’s greatest military minds who, as King of Macedonia and Persia, established the largest empire the ancient … The new Macedonian army was an amalgamation of different forces. One ancient source notes that this was an elderly and highly experienced army, and this was certainly true by modern standards. Many examples of helmets from the period have crest or plume-holders attached, so that a high degree of martial finery could be achieved by the wearing of imposing headpieces.[37]. Defences of a similar appearance composed of quilted textile are also described. Every spring there were a lot of military practices, tasks. Even today, many military commanders believe that they can learn lessons from the campaigns of the ancient Macedonian king. Philip II introduced the formation, probably in emulation of Thracian and Scythian cavalry, though the example of the rhomboid formation adopted by Macedon's southern neighbours, the Thessalians, must also have had some effect.[10]. [11] Companion cavalrymen would normally have worn armour and a helmet in battle. The shields depicted are smaller and lighter than those employed in a traditional hoplite phalanx, the sarissa is twice as long as the hoplite spear and fully enclosed helmets weren't as widespread as this drawing suggests.). 68-69. Macedon itself was not unified, it consisted of a heartland inhabited by the Macedonians proper and many highland 'baronies' peopled by tribesmen ruled by semi-hellenised chieftains who recognised the power of the king only when it was in their interest. The xyston was used to thrust either overarm or underarm with the elbow flexed. [42], Concerning shield dimensions, there are different interpretations by scholars. [47], In conjunction with various forms of artillery, the Macedonians possessed the ability to build an effective array of siege engines. Philip took a poorly disciplined group of men and turned them into a formidable army. Agrianian peltast - modern reconstruction by Johnny Shumate. Peltasts were armed with a number of javelins and a sword, carried a light shield but wore no armour, though they sometimes had helmets; they were adept at skirmishing and were often used to guard the flanks of more heavily equipped infantry. All the while Philip’s men could jab and wound the enemy. (illustrator) (1986). At Issus and Gaugamela, the Thessalians withstood the attack of Persian cavalry forces, though greatly outnumbered. The shoulder elements and upper chest are of plate iron, whilst the waist is composed of scale armour for ease of movement. your own Pins on Pinterest This shows Alexander the Great as a cavalryman. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of any material on this site without express and written permission from the author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. They were used for a variety of irregular missions by Alexander, often in conjunction with the Agrianians (elite skirmishers), the Companions and select units of phalangites. Ancient Macedonian army The army of the Kingdom of Macedonia was among the greatest military forces of the ancient world. These soldiers from Macedonia proper were supplemented by considerable forces from other territories. The Companions that accompanied Alexander to Asia numbered 1,800 men. Most of Alexander’s adult life was spent on campaign. The army of the Kingdom of Macedonia was among the greatest military forces of the ancient world. These men knew their job and knew each other. The most common form of armour was the linothorax, which was a cuirass of stiff linen built up of glued layers of textile. Yet behind this constant aggression lay careful calculation and purpose and a rare ability to adapt to each situation. The Macedonian Archers. At Gaugamela, the Greek infantry formed the defensive rear of the box formation Alexander arranged his army into, while the Macedonians formed its front face. Light infantry javelineers would have used a version of the pelte (Ancient Greek: πέλτη) shield, from whence their name, peltast, derived. Greek warfare was still dominated by the hoplite, armoured spearman who fought in the close-knit ranks of the phalanx. The left hand would project beyond the rim of the shield to grip the sarissa. The Macedonians grew accustomed to victory and also well used to working as a team. Manoeuvres and drills were made into competitive events, and the truculent Macedonians vied with each other to excel. The shaft of the xyston was tapered allowing the point of balance, and therefore the hand grip, to be approximately two thirds of the length of the spear away from the point. The primary weapon of the Macedonian cavalry was the xyston, a double ended lance, with a sword as a secondary weapon. (Image source: WikiMedia Commons). Properly nice figures sculpted by Steve Saleh and Nick Collier with Mark Copplestone, they paint up a treat, pics below are armoured phalanx prior to adding the shields and basing effects. According to Aelian, a syntagma was accompanied by five additional individuals to the rear: a herald (to act as a messenger), a trumpeter (to sound out commands), an ensign (to hold the unit's standard), an additional officer (called ouragos), and a servant. At first, the military comittment in the ancient Macedonian state was only temporary. It was created and made formidable by King Philip II of Macedon; previously the army of Macedon had been of little account in the politics of the Greek world, and Macedonia had been regarded as a second-rate power. These infantrymen were called Pezhetairoi — the Foot Companions — and made up the dreaded Macedonian phalanx. The Thessalians were considered the finest cavalry of Greece. Foot archers, notably mercenary Cretans, were also employed; Cretans were noted for the heavy, large-headed arrows they used. would need to struggle to get in close enough to the Macedonians to strike a blow. A phalangite also carried a sword as a secondary weapon for close quarter fighting should the phalanx disintegrate. However, the Companion cavalry of the Antigonid dynasty did carry large, round bossed shields of Thracian origin. Various Balkan peoples such as Agrianes, Paeonians and Thracians provided either light infantry or cavalry or indeed both. In battle, the Greek hoplites had a less active role than the Macedonian phalangites and hypaspists. The sound of myriads of pikes moving though the air in unison, as they were deployed, was said to be most impressive, and very demoralising to the ears of enemy troops. This, alongside the evidence of the depiction of Alexander the Great in the Alexander Mosaic, shows that the technology to make plate armour in iron existed at this time. However, shorter spears and javelins were wielded in addition to the xyston. He also wears a linothorax cuirass and a Thracian helmet. The phalanx, however, was extremely vulnerable in the flanks and rear.[20]. Cretan archers were unusual in carrying a shield, which was relatively small and faced in bronze. It was created and made formidable by King Philip II of Macedon; previously the army of Macedon had been of little account in the politics of the Greek world, and Macedonia had been regarded as a second-rate power. Alexander Sarcophagus. Philip II of Macedon - silver tetradrachm coin. The Thracians deployed in their ancestral wedge formations and were armed with javelins and swords. The Alexander Mosaic suggests that officers of the heavy cavalry had rank badges in the form of laurel wreaths (perhaps painted or of metallic construction) on their helmets. Unfortunately, the primary historical sources for this period have been lost. Towards the end, however, there was a general slide away from the combined arms approach, and the phalanx once more became the arm of decision, much like in the days of the earlier hoplites. Alexander did not actually use the phalanx as the decisive arm of his battles, but instead used it to pin and demoralize the enemy while his heavy cavalry would charge selected opponents or exposed enemy unit flanks, most usually after driving the enemy horse from the field. The army of the Kingdom of Macedon was among the greatest military forces of the ancient world. As a consequence, scholarship is largely reliant on the writings of Diodorus Siculus and Arrian, both of whom lived centuries later than the events they describe.[1]. Ancient Sculpture. Spearmen from Pontus and Phrygia were also employed. Macdonald Phoebus, London, pp. From descriptions of combat, it would appear that once in melee the Companion cavalryman used his lance to thrust at the chests and faces of the enemy. Macdonald Phoebus, London, pp. After taking control of the gold-rich mines of Mount Pangaeus, and the city of Amphipolis that dominated the region, he obtained the wealth to support a large army, moreover it was a professional army imbued with a national spirit. One experienced Roman general later described the advance of the Macedonian phalanx as the most terrifying thing he had ever seen. The Prodromoi were Macedonians, they are sometimes referred to as Sarissophoroi, or "lancers", which leads to the conclusion that they sometimes were armed with an uncommonly long xyston (believed to be 14 ft long), though certainly not an infantry pike. The Macedonian army was one of the first military forces to use 'combined armstactics', using a variety of specialised troops to fulfill specific battlefield roles in order to form a greater whole. Macedonia, ancient kingdom centred on the plain in the northeastern corner of the Greek peninsula, at the head of the Gulf of Thérmai. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A Macedonian king was expected to set an example of personal courage. Some scholars have noted that Asclepiodotus defined the Macedonian shield as being different from other Greek shields, in dimensions and construction. The sarissa ensured the enemy was kept at a distance and would need to struggle to get in close enough to the Macedonians to strike a blow. Such machines could shower the defenders of a city with missiles and create a breach in the walls themselves. This probably meant that, as both hands were needed to hold the sarissa, the shield was worn suspended by a shoulder strap and steadied by the left forearm passing through the armband. Light troops were provided by a number of subject and allied peoples. 57-59, Sekunda N. and McBride, A. Connolly, P. (1981) Greece and Rome at War. The armies of the Diadochi period were equipped and fought mainly in the same style as Alexander's. By Alexander’s time, torsion-powered artillery was in use. The Hypaspists (Hypaspistai) were the elite arm of the Macedonian infantry. Concentrated missile fire from light infantry was used by Alexander to counter both scythed chariots and war elephants. It lacked prosperous farmers willing to serve when required – men who provided their own equipment and were proficient in its use. Connolly, P. (1981) Greece and Rome at War. The Hypaspistai. 58-59. All Rights Reserved. Largely recruited from the Odrysian tribe, the Thracian cavalry also acted as scouts on the march. May 13, 2016 - History of #Macedonia, a kingdom of ancient #Greece - A drawing of a Macedonian phalanx. None lasted more than a day, and for all their importance, far more time was spent in raids, skirmishes and most of all sieges of cities, towns and villages. Macdonald Phoebus, London, pp. According to descriptions in Antique sources, relief depictions, and from several archaeological findings, it is known that the diameter of the Macedonian shield varied from 62 cm up to 74 cm. It may have resembled the later manica armour used by Roman gladiators and cataphract cavalry. [13] The numbers given for Alexander's invasion of the Persian Empire included 1,800 such men. In appearance, they would have been almost identical to the hypaspists. The word 'hypaspists' translates into English as 'shield-bearers'. Macdonald Phoebus, London, pp. Horse-archers from the nomadic peoples of the Steppes proved a very effective asset in Alexander’s campaigns in Afghanistan and India. Macdonald Phoebus, London, pp. At Gaugamela, the Thracians fielded 4 ilai and were about 500 strong. Alexander Sarcophagus. At the Battle of Hydaspes, the massed fire of the horse archers was effective at disordering the Indian cavalry and helped to neutralise the Indian chariots.[16]. In the process, he went from a dashing young hero to scarred, limping and one-eyed veteran, for he exposed himself to dangers every bit as much as Alexander would later. This formation was very efficient for manoeuvring, as it allowed the squadron to change direction at speed while still retaining cohesion. The army led by Alexander the Great into the Persian Empire included Greek heavy infantry in the form of allied contingents provided by the League of Corinth and hired mercenaries. This seems to have changed by Alexander's time as during the mutiny at Opis in 324 BC the men were chastised by Alexander for having run up debts despite earning "good pay". Its organization and weaponry were similar to the Companion Cavalry. The conquests of Alexander the Great. Nearly all the men and the vast majority of officers at the start of the Persian expedition had campaigned extensively with Philip. It is a common mistake to portray the Companion cavalry as a force able to burst through compact infantry lines. Diodorus claimed that Philip was inspired to make changes in the organisation of his Macedonian infantry from reading a passage in the writings of Homer describing a close-packed formation. He conspicuously shared the rigours of marching and riding thousands of miles with his men, enduring fatigue, hunger, thirst and the extremes of climate. [14], These light cavalry were recruited from Paeonia, a tribal region to the north of Macedonia. Detail of the so-called Alexander Sarcophagus, excavated at Sidon. They often faced tremendous opposition when in this role. It is possible that the lance was aimed at the upper body of an opposing cavalryman in the expectation that a blow which did not wound or kill might have sufficient leverage to unseat. It was created and made formidable by King Philip II of Macedon; previously the army of Macedon had been of little account in the politics of the Greek world, and Macedonia had … Also used javelins and various Balkan peoples such as Agrianes, a double ended with. Bring hoplite tactics and equipment to Macedonia had failed decades, he combined it with shrewd tactical and thinking. Its very effective at scouting and in screening the rest of the lion of... ( ilarch ) and a Boeotian helmet, and the vast majority of officers at the start of ancient. ', without cheek pieces, were the elite light infantry of the pike! 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